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Ambient and household air pollution on early-life determinants of stunting—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Stunting is an important risk factor for early growth and health implications throughout the life course, yet until recently, studies have rarely focused on populations exposed to high levels of particulate matter pollution or on developing countries most vulnerable to stunting and its associated health and developmental impacts. We systematically searched for epidemiologic studies published up to 15 August 2020 that examined the association between ambient and household particulate exposure and postnatal stunting (height-for-age z-score) and prenatal determinants (small for gestational age or SGA, or equivalent) of stunting.